Acceptance Factors of Privacy-Enhancing Technologies on the Basis of Tor and JonDonym

Pape, S. and Harborth, D.

In Human Factors in Privacy Research, pages 299-320, Springer International Publishing, 2023.


This chapter provides information about acceptance factors of privacy-enhancing technologies (PETs) based on our research why users are using Tor and JonDonym, respectively. For that purpose, we surveyed 124 Tor users (Harborth and Pape 2020) and 142 JonDonym users (Harborth Pape 2020) and did a quantitative evaluation (PLS-SEM) on different user acceptance factors. We investigated trust in the PET and perceived anonymity (Harborth et al. 2021; Harborth et al. 2020; Harborth and Pape 2018), privacy concerns, and risk and trust beliefs (Harborth and Pape 2019) based on Internet Users Information Privacy Concerns (IUIPC) and privacy literacy (Harborth and Pape 2020). The result was that trust in the PET seems to be the major driver. Furthermore, we investigated the users' willingness to pay or donate for/to the service (Harborth et al. 2019). In this case, risk propensity and the frequency of perceived improper invasions of users' privacy were relevant factors besides trust in the PET. While these results were new in terms of the application of acceptance factors to PETs, none of the identified factors was surprising. To identify new factors and learn about differences in users' perceptions between the two PETs, we also did a qualitative analysis of the questions if users have any concerns about using the PET, when they would be willing to pay or donate, which features they would like to have and why they would (not) recommend the PET (Harborth et al. 2021; Harborth et al. 2020). To also investigate the perspective of companies, we additionally interviewed 12 experts and managers dealing with privacy and PETs in their daily business and identified incentives and hindrances to implement PETs from a business perspective (Harborth et al. 2018).

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  author    = {Sebastian Pape and David Harborth},
  title     = {Acceptance Factors of Privacy-Enhancing Technologies on the Basis of Tor and JonDonym},
  booktitle = {Human Factors in Privacy Research},
  publisher = {Springer International Publishing},
  year      = {2023},
  editor    = {Nina Gerber and Alina St{\"o}ver and Karola Marky},
  pages     = {299--320},
  month     = {03},
  isbn      = {978-3-031-28643-8},
  doi       = {10.1007/978-3-031-28643-8_15},
  keywords  = {privacy, PETs, Human factors},
  url       = {},